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Ceramic



Prehispanic 
The ceramic constitutes the most important and better archaeological evidence preserved in 
the locations corresponding to sedentary and generally agricultural towns of the period 
neoindio (1000 to. C. -1500 d. C). As the use of the metal, great quantity of utensils it was 
not known and ritual objects of that time were elaborated with clay. This is a material that 
resists the step of the time and the waste taken place by the natural elements. The origin of 
the technology alfarera is not still known in America; however, some authors like Meggers, 
Evans and Estrada (1965), they have suggested that this has an Asian origin and that it was 
diffused in American territory by transpacific contacts. Other archaeologists (Lathrap, 
1968) they are awaiting new evidences the possible independent invention that could have 
this technology in America to highlight. The earliest evidence in the use of the pottery in 
the American continent (more than 3.000 years to. C.) it comes from the Ecuadorian coast 
(Lathrap, 1975) and of Puerto Hormiga, Colombia (Reichel-Dolmatoff, 1965). The 
opposing discoveries suggest the existence of a technology well developed alfarera, for 
what is probable to find places where a technological experimentation is evidenced that is 
even earlier. In Venezuela, 2 ceramic places have provided dates corresponding to the third 
millennium to. C.: Hairy ranch (Edo. Zulia; Rouse and Cruxent, 1966) and The Grotto 
(south of the Edo. Guárico; Roosevelt A., 1978). However, recent studies have questioned 
these dates so early (Zucchi, Tarble and Vaz, 1984 and Vargas, 1981). It was only around 
the 1.000 years to. C., when the pottery associated to the agriculture extended to the rest of 
the territory. With the development of the agriculture or intensive exploitation of the natural 
resources, changes were introduced in the pattern of subsistence and modifications in the 
lifestyle of the prehispanic towns; there were a bigger sedentarismo, demographic increases 
and an increment in the variety and quantity of ceramic devices. The weight, volume and 
fragility of the vessels were factors that influenced to avoid the use of the pottery on the 
part of the nomadic groups. With the result that the sedentarización brought I get the 
adoption of this technology. The changes happened in the diet by the new cultivations made 
necessary the elaboration of new implementos to store, to cook and to serve foods. The 
ceramic, when resisting the heat, to conserve the fresh liquids, and to be waterproof, she/he 
responded efficiently to these more necessities that the cestería recipients, wood and 
pumpkin of common use. Although the great majority of the ceramic flowerpots found in 
the locations corresponds to vessels of practical use (pots, bottles, bowls, cups, plates, 
budares, jars, materos, strainers, tapas and topias), the clay was also not only for the before 
Columbus towns a means of artistic expression in the objects of use newspaper but in those 
dedicated to the ceremonial activities. It is necessary to highlight that when referring to the 
prehispanic societies, it is incongruous to separate the spiritual world and the daily world. 
The cosmovisión indigenous permeaba all the activities, and the symbols used in the artistic 
expression, generally corresponded to this vision and they reinforced it. For that reason, it 
is probable that the designs used in the ceramic, including the pottery for practical use, they 
had a symbolic value besides the ornamental one. Certain devices, as the figures zoomorfas 
and anthropomorphous, the incensarios (Wagner, 1972), the maracas, the funeral urns, etc., 
however, they seem to have had a function highly ceremonial. Some of these pieces have a 
high aesthetic value (Boulton, 1978). The clay was also used for personal embellecimiento 
(you count, pintaderas, orejeras) to manufacture musical instruments, pipes, toys, spindle 
weights used to spin cotton, records, weights for the fishing nets, etc. has been 
archaeological evidences and etnohistóricas that indicate that some groups, besides 
manufacturing ceramic for the consumption of its own community, specialized in the 
production alfarera with exchange ends. This way, that of the otomacos of the half Orinoco 
arrived to the groups llaneros who appreciated these pots to cook the turtle oil (Morey, 
1975). You can infer in the archaeological locations that there was trade when finding 
anomalous flowerpots, different to the ceramic elaborated in the place. 

It manufactures: In the prehispanic Venezuela the lathe and the mold were ignored, ceramic 
techniques that are generally associated with a massive production. Most of the before 
Columbus ceramic in the country was a domestic product, generally elaborated by women 
(Linné, 1965) who transmitted those techniques to the following generations. It is probable 
that in certain cultures before Columbus Venezuelans outstanding artisans that specialized 
in the production alfarera in an exclusive way arose. Each one of the stages of the process 
of factory of a ceramic piece (preparation of the pasta, construction, decoration and 
cooking) it requires special technical knowledge that have left perfecting through the time. 
The preparation of the pasta begins with the selection and gathering of the clay in deposits 
chosen by its purity, humidity, color, etc. (Osborn A., 1979). After to eliminate the sludges 
and to knead the clay, some desgrasante type is generally added (antiplástico) to avoid that 
the piece you encoja and crack during the drying process and cooking. In Venezuela, some 
of the materials used with this end are: sand, crushed stone, milled shells, milled 
flowerpots, fibers, burnt barks, caraipé, a rich ash in silica coming from the bark of certain 
trees of the Rosy family [Linné, 1965] and the esponjilla of sweet water (cauixí: the spicule 
of a sponge of sweet water, Parmula batesii Crankcase and Tubella reticulata Crankcase). 
The type of elected desgrasante for the potters largely depended on the readiness of 
materials. The employment of milled shells, for example, was more common near the sea. 
The sponge of sweet water whose silica offers to the artisan different advantages, is only in 
the riversides of certain rivers, although it could arrive to other areas through the trade nets. 
It has been suggested that in Venezuela the elaboration of a ceramic piece was made by 
means of the modeling one direct of a clay piece and through the superimposición of clay 
buns, united until reaching the wanted form (Cruxent, 1980). To treat the surfaces they 
were employees diverse such procedures as the alisamiento, the one rasped with some 
curved object (for example, a piece of it covered or wood), the pulitura with different 
degrees of shine, by means of a rounded cobble and finally, the employment of a bathroom 
of very fine clay diluted in water, denominated engobe, which can also be refined. In the 
prehispanic America the technique of the was not known «glaze», very common in the 
ceramic of the East and of the Old World (Shepard, 1954). Some ceramic pieces present in 
the base or in the inferior part of the paunch, impressions of cesterías fabrics or braided, 
achieved by means of the pressure of these materials on the humid clay during the factory 
process. A rough surface could be an advantage for an utilitarian vessel, since it would slide 
less and it could absorb the heat of the vent with more speed due to its biggest effective 
surface (Linné, 1965). The before Columbus potters of the Venezuelan territory used an 
entire range of technical ornamental that include the painting (monochrome, bicromas and 
polichrome); the modeling one (geometric appendixes, zoomorfas or anthropomorphous, 
you roast, paws, figurinas, etc.); the appliqué (you throw, bellboys, geometric 
representations and zoomorfas in bajorrelieve: frogs, snakes, tigers, etc.); the incision made 
with different technical (fine, wide, flat, deep, executed before or after drying off the 
vessel, with an infinity of rectilinear, curvilinear or figurative expressions); the division, in 
which you/they are lowered certain areas of the design (generally in combination with 
decoration incises); you impress made with the fingernails, with the fingers, with tube, with 
shell fragments, with seeds, with fabrics, etc., and multiple combinations of these 
techniques (Cruxent and Rouse, 1961). Once elaborated and decorated the vessel, allowed 
to dry off to subject it to the fire. Up to now in Venezuela, they have not been discovered 
before Columbus ovens for the ceramic and one shows off that the pieces were exposed to 
the heat for the cooking in open quemaderos, similar to those that have been described for 
current groups that still manufacture traditional pottery (Acosta Saignes, 1964; Osborn, 
1979). 

Analysis: As the clay it is an extremely plastic material, the factors that govern the 
completed product are predominantly of functional or aesthetic nature, reason why they 
reflect the specific necessities and the stylistic norms characteristic of each community. The 
ceramic styles or recurrent combinations of ceramic features characteristic to a group in a 
restricted area and in a limited period, they spread to be resistant to the changes. For that 
reason, as well as the linguist uses the phonemes and morphemes to classify languages and 
to demonstrate interrelation degrees, the archaeologists use the ceramic to reconstruct space 
relationships and storms of the groups in the past. These analyses can be made in different 
scales: to level of attributes or ways (for example, such isolated elements as the decorations 
in mamelón form, the spicule desgrasante, etc.); to level of combinations of attributes or 
types (for example, the reddish pasta, the refined surface or the decoration incises); at level 
of ceramic collections coming from a certain place (the styles or potteries are defined by 
the characteristic features of the place: shell desgrasante, rectilinear decoration incises and 
colored, base ring and big urns); and at level of groups of similar and supposedly related 
styles, that is to say, series or traditions whose extension space-storm is wider (Rouse, 
1973; Tarble, 1977). 

Distribution in Venezuela: Cruxent and Rouse (1961) they settled down for Venezuela 10 
ceramic series, which form the basic outline to explain the development, expansion and the 
diverse contacts among the aboriginal residents of the time neoindia. Later works have 
enlarged this outline, providing detailed information on local and regional developments. It 
is possible to highlight certain tendencies in the development of the production prehispanic 
alfarera in the Venezuelan territory. As different authors they have pointed out it (Osgood 
and Howard, 1943; Rouse and Cruxent, 1966), the ceramic production reflects a certain 
cultural dicotomía between the occident and the east, which corresponds, in turn, to 2 main 
sources of external influence, since the occident participated of the cultural patterns of you 
Walk them central and Mesoamérica (with a subsistence based on the cultivation of the 
corn or the potato) while the east presented cultural features that indicate influences and 
contacts with Amazonia and the Antilles (whose subsistence was based primarily in the 
cultivation of the yucca, Manihot esculenta G.) marked differences Exist among the 
ceramic of these regions. In the occident they are common the bases with hollow paws and 
the ring ones high with or without perforation, the simple or hollow borders, the incision 
with not very modeling and the painting bicroma or polichrome on a white bottom. In east, 
on the other hand, the pottery is characterized by simple bases or with low and solid rings, 
borders with lash, handles vertical acintadas, painting target on red, decorations modeling-
parentheses, as well as figures incorporated in the walls of the vessel (Rouse and Cruxent, 
1966). This dicotomía is more evident in the early period (1000 to. C. - 300 d. C.), during 
which the styles are very defined, they are distinctive of the regions to each other and they 
evidence a high isolation degree among the different communities. It was during this period 
when some of the maximum technical and aesthetic expressions of the aboriginal ceramic 
took place: pedestal plates and vessels with polichrome painting of the series osoide (Edo. 
Barinas), anthropomorphous figurinas and ceremonial vessels of the style Santa Ana (Edo. 
Trujillo), and of the series tocuyanoide (Edo. Lara). In the east we find ceramic it dies 
colored of the style saladoide and modeling vessels you incise and very elaborated of the 
series barrancoide (Edo. Monagas). Starting from 300 d. C., approximately, the ceramic 
reflects a bigger contact intergrupal, represented so much in the presence of trade 
flowerpots like for the stylistic innovations that can end up forming hybrid styles with 
multiple roots. This period is also characterized by a demographic growth that possibly 
generates migrations, which are perceived through the space-temporary distribution of the 
different ceramic styles. For example, in the south of the country a new series, the 
arauquinoide, is introduced whose cauixí desgrasante indicates a possibly amazon origin. 
This ceramic style with fine and deep incision, in oblique rectilinear reasons, ends up 
replacing or to exercise changes about other styles in a vast sector that includes the western 
plains, the region of Valencia and the whole course of the river Orinoco (Zucchi, 1978). 
Around the 1000 d. C., very flowing, predominant curvilinear changes are observed that are 
substituted by the rectilinear ones parallel and in comb form, which indicate a strong 
influence from Colombia (Reichel-Dolmatoff, 1954). During this period it happens a 
coastal expansion of the series dabajuroide characterized by the fabric impression in the 
bases, pots with necks corrugados, hollow paws and red painting or quarter note on white. 
This series probably has its origin in the area of Hairy Ranch (Edo. Zulia). In the east the 
expansion of the series saladoide took place toward the coast (Vargas, 1979), as well as the 
later one influences barrancoide on this ceramic, which is manifested in the adoption of 
new incision modalities and modeling. In the smallest and bigger Antilles they are so much 
ceramic of the series saladoide like other, later, with influence barrancoide that are 
indicative of migrations colonizadoras coming from mainland. Four of the late series 
(1000-1400 d. C.): 1) Ocumaroide, of the central coast; 2) campomoide, of the oriental 
coast; 3) memoide, of the plains and central coast, and 4) the guayabitoide, of the oriental 
coast, they exemplify a tendency toward the miscegenation of styles, and in 2 o'clock last, 
she/he shows the aesthetic degeneration of the late ceramic of the country. During this time, 
the cultural dicotomía mentioned previously attenuates, being elements «western» and 
«oriental» cocktails in diverse ways in different ceramic styles. For example, in Campoma 
(Edo. Sucre) Wagner (1977) she/he found elements colored western and modeling center-
oriental parentheses, besides a mixed subsistence evidenced by the presence of hands and 
metates to mill corn and budares for the cooking of the casabe cakes. The European 
conquest rebounded strongly in the ceramic production of the country. On one hand, they 
appear in the late locations of indigenous populations, such flowerpots of European factory 
as the mayólica, pitchers of olives, lacquered recipients and Chinese porcelain (Rouse and 
Cruxent, 1966). On the other hand, in you commend them and missions, the aboriginal 
ceramic survives, which suffers a marked simplification due to several factors: 1) the 
missionaries pagans considered the indigenous representations and for ende, they 
prohibited them; 2) the Europeans were only interested in the aboriginal ceramic for 
utilitarian ends, that which reduced the range of variety before produced, and 3) the 
European diet, with emphasis in grains, broths and stews, it would have affected the forms 
and thickness of the vessels, since they should support for more time the heat of the vent 
(García Arévalo, 1978). These examples of the changes suffered by the ceramic in the 
period indohispano are good to illustrate that, besides providing information on people's 
témporo-space distribution that produced it, the ceramic it is also lent for studies of the 
sociocultural reconstruction of the towns. Of her it can be derived information on 
establishment patterns, subsistence, storage technology and preparation of foods, 
organization and social diferenciación, wardrobe aspects, ritual, symbolism and trade 
(Tarble 1977, 1980). K.T. 
XVI-XVIII centuries 
The pleasure that was developed by the ceramic, during the time colonial Venezuelan, it 
was varied. The county of Venezuela was exposed to diverse influences through the 
external trade. When the first cities of the country were founded, in the XVI century, the 
used ceramic came, in its biggest part, of Spanish alfares. Later on, during the XVII 
century, the potteries of Holland appeared and of Mexico, together with some Chinese 
porcelains. These last ones got paid more and more importance, since they were in fashion 
in Europe. When concluding the XVIII century the imports of Chinese porcelain they were 
progressively displaced, although not completely, for the French potteries and Englishmen. 
The local production should also be pointed out and the one that arrived of Cartagena and 
Sacred Domingo. 

Pottery of Spain: The first historical reference on Hispanic ceramic cared Venezuela, is 
given in the story of Christopher Columbus third trip (1498). The excavations made 
between 1955 and 1961 by J.M. Cruxent, in New Cádiz, they have revealed infinity of 
fragments of potteries and tiles sevillanos. Among the second half of the XVII century and 
until the second decade of the following century, as the American alfares multiplied, 
especially in Puebla, the Spanish ceramic import diminished; maybe it also contributed this, 
the isolation in that she/he was the county of Venezuela then. Toward 1730, the Compañía 
Guipuzcoana gave a new impulse to the import of Spanish potteries. The ceramic sevillana 
was, like it was said, the one that it was cared regularly from the XVI century until the 
moment of the Independence. Of the alfares sevillanos potteries of domestic use didn't only 
arrive also but tiles and olabrillas. Together with these imports they arrived pieces of 
Talavera of the Queen, Bridge of the Archbishop, Alcora, Valencia and Catalonia equally. 
Of Talavera they arrived an infinity of pieces, especially lebrillos, indispensable tackle in 
the housing and in the churches of the time. Multiple technical (of production and 
ornamental) they were employees in the pieces that arrived to the country. Among them, 
the most important was the covered ceramic for enamel estannífero; others were: that of dry 
rope, basin or edge, metallic reflection. Certainly, all they required of the use of the lathe 
and of the western oven. The ornamental topics are very varied and representative of the 
transformations that suffered the Peninsula. The imports continued, although not so 
frequent, during the War of Independence. After this, in 1821, this exchange disappeared. 
Pottery of the earth: The origin of the ceramic Venezuelan postcolombina had its roots in 
the aboriginal ceramic. However, the solid tradition alfarera brought by the Spaniards 
affected the indigenous methods. The lathe, the oven and the lead enamels and come tin of 
the Peninsula, they were implanted progressively in American territory. Although in the 
near areas to the new cities dominated the techniques and cared forms, there were places in 
that the indigenous tradition was very ingrained. Some Creole forms also accuse the 
miscegenation, for example, the botijuelas, many locerías opened up at the same time that 
you would knit them, when settling down firmly certain cities. It is known that when 
concluding the XVII century, some locerías of Caracas was operating, since their products 
were in houses matters, according to they prove it the inventories that you/they speak of 
these as «earth pottery» or «Creole pottery». This «pottery» it is mainly represented by 
tinajas, pans, múcuras, curacas, lebrillos, jars, tiles, etc. The technique of production was 
simple, it consisted on the use of the local clay or of the proximities, of the lathe in most of 
the cases (I save in the factory of tiles, bricks, etc.), of a single cochura and in very special 
occasions, of a monochrome or marbled glaze. Starting from the second half of the XVIII 
century, the local locerías had not only intensified their production but rather this was more 
refined and more varied. When concluding the XVIII century the importance it is noticed 
that has won the «pottery of the earth» because, besides utilitarian pieces, creó such 
ornamental objects as the pinnacles of mud glaze that finished off the cornices of houses 
and churches. 

Pottery of Cartagena and of Sacred Domingo: Documents and testaments speak of the 
existence of «cartaxena flagstone». This proves that in Cartagena (Colombia), there was a 
center locero of some importance whose existence is even unknown for the archaeologists. 
Other documents refer to «pottery of Sacred Domingo». Possibly, some copies were cared 
Venezuela through the Compañía Guipuzcoana of Caracas, since so much Sacred Domingo 
as Cartagena was points forced for that trade. 

Snail pottery and flint pottery: It is ignored technically which the type of denominated 
pottery was of «snail», which appears with certain frequency in the inventories from 
Caracas of the last 30 years of the XVIII century. Can little be said on the one of «flint»; 
however, is it known that it was a variety of «opaque pottery» (maybe sandstone?), very 
resistant that took their name of the spark stone that she/he entered in their composition. 

Pottery of Mexico: The quantity of pottery that exported the viceroyalty from New Spain to 
the county of Venezuela was considerable. The trade of potteries between Mexico and 
Venezuela arose soon after of the establishment of different locerías in that country, in the 
XVI century. The main import that Venezuela received came from Puebla of The Ángeles. 
Then they competed, those of Jalapa, Guadalajara, Patamban and Campeche. Almost all the 
shipments left Veracruz. The great quantity of Venezuelan cocoa going to that port, 
contributed in certain way to the development of the industry Mexican locera; so it is so in 
the alfares of Puebla it ended up being made a special cup that she/he called himself 
«pozuelo from Caracas». The types of pieces that more they were cared of Mexico they 
were: lebrillos, tinajas, botijuelas, plates, pozuelos, bowls, cups, jars, carafes, vases or 
vessels made with the clay of the same name, tiles and pharmacy pots. The technique 
employee in the production of these was that of Spanish tradition, managed with master and 
enriched by indigenous hands and mestizos. The characteristic topics were generally human 
figures or surrounded animals of a flora imaginary or simply skilled ornamental pincelazos, 
sometimes of Spanish and other influence, of Chinese influence. 

Chinese porcelain: In Hispanic America the Chinese porcelain was known soon after the 
foundation of Manila (1571), because of there they left every year 30 to 40 ships heading 
for Acapulco. Of there the loads went to Veracruz, from where they passed to other Spanish 
colonies of the Caribbean. In that time the first samples arrived from that art to the county 
of Venezuela; they prove it the flowerpots found in the old New Cádiz. The pieces of 
Chinese porcelain that you/they were cared Venezuela were not of special responsibility but 
rather they arrived through the trade with Mexico or, through the Dutch islands of Curazao 
and Bonaire that received them from Europe. During the XVII century Venezuela scarcely 
cared Chinese porcelain. She/he was necessary to wait the principle of the following 
century, when the interest of Spain reborns for the oriental world, so that she/he woke up in 
Venezuela the pleasure for him «Chinese». The foundation of the Compañía Guipuzcoana 
(1728), it contributed vastly to the import of these arts of the fire. The inventories of the 
testamentarías, mainly those of the XVIII century, they have evidenced the growing interest 
that the Venezuelan showed for the oriental porcelain. The imports of principles of the 
XVIII century understood, mainly, pozuelos with their plates, for the tea or the chocolate 
or, some plates and big plates to serve. By the middle of the same century, the games of tea 
appeared and later, those of coffee. The vases, tibores and the decoration figures were in 
general scarce. In Europe the aristocratic families used to take charge the pieces and they 
sent to China the models of their pleasure; frequently they requested the representation of 
heraldic emblems. In Venezuela there were not responsibility chinas, except for those that 
some families brought of Spain, through the Company of Spanish India; the pleasure that 
was imposed in the Chinese porcelain of export, was the European; they demonstrate this 
way it the copies conserved in Venezuela. The styles in those that classifies it to him, 
especially those of the XVIII century, go associated to the procedures. For example, the 
employment of the oxide of cobalt low enamel gave place to the called porcelains «blue 
and white». That of style imari shows the combined application of the low blue it enamels, 
with the red of iron and the gilding on it enamels. On the other hand, the call style of the 
pink family demanded the use of the colors «foreigners». This style was one of the most 
successful and durable innovations in the XVIII century. Inside the porcelains in this style, 
they should be distinguished 2 main categories: the first one, composed by the porcelains 
dedicated to the Chinese imperial court in those that dominates the refinement, of design 
Chinese as much in the decoration as in the form; the second, product of the western 
influence; this was dedicated to the external trade and it is the one that is represented in 
Venezuela. In the decoration of these are imposed so much the thematic one Chinese as the 
European and in occasions both they fuse. When concluding the XVIII century 2 new 
derived styles of the pink family they appeared: the rose medallion and the Mandarin; these 
were conceived for the export and they reached their acme for 1800. The Chinese porcelain 
was popular in Venezuela until the same moment of the Independence; later, for political or 
economic reasons, it disappeared of the local market. 
Pottery of Holland, France and England: In the county of Venezuela the first potteries 
coming from Holland appeared toward the second half of the XVI century. Many arrived 
through the incursions of the Dutchmen in the oriental or western coast of the country and 
not through the legal trade. She/he should remember that Curazao was the most important 
center for the distribution of the «pottery of Holland» in the American territory, especially 
in the area of the Caribbean. To the Venezuelan costs secret Dutch ships arrived bringing 
smuggling merchandise to be able to be taken the salt of the mines of Araya and the 
tobacco of the siembras of Barinas. To Venezuela they arrived: plates, cups of tea, sumps, 
almofias, jars, services of coffee, fusayolas, etc. In their majority, these pieces were made 
with the technique of the application of the blue cobalt and the enamel estannífero. Almost 
all the plates present a singular characteristic: the one of having been marked to the reverse 
for small holes, due to the retirement of the enamel during the cooking. The dominant 
decoration was the Chinese one. J.M. Does Cruxent point out the existence of sandstone 
flowerpots (flint?) German in Venezuelan territory, during this period. Maybe it could 
arrive together with the potteries of Holland. The imports of French pottery carried out 
during the Colony in Venezuela, were scarce. The oldest testimonies have been the 
flowerpots found in the castles of Guayana: fragments of pottery of Ruán, dated by the 
middle of the XVII century. Later on they were received: big plates, soup, plates, bacines of 
shaving, etc. The ornamental technique more employee was the one of «great fire». Maybe 
some of these potteries came from Nevers, Auxerre, Ancy-he-Franc, him Château 
Chevannes, etc. The English pieces generally entered to the country during the colonial 
time for illicit trade, or for the Spanish government's same personeros that you/they brought 
some. Most of those that ended up when concluding the XVIII century, took a decoration 
that reflected the industrial revolution. In order to reducing the colored one by hand, for 
1750, the Englishmen had invented the technique of the transferred drawing, which is 
represented on copies that were in Venezuela. 
XIX century 
She/he has not still been carried out on purpose a complete and deep investigation of the 
ceramic manufactured in Venezuela or of the one cared during the national time, although a 
good contribution exists in Manuel R. Rivero book, Potteries and porcelains in Venezuela. 
The national production, call «ceramic or Creole pottery», it was limited to the domestic 
use and it was not considered of value. However, the production of bricks, losetas, 
continued tiles, tiles, etc., indispensable in architecture. The alfares of the urban centers 
continued attached to the Spanish tradition and in general, European; while the alfares of 
the interior, disseminated in rural areas, conserved indigenous features and they even ended 
up producing a «mestizo ceramic». As for the pottery and porcelain cared to the country 
during the XIX century, it can be said that great part came of England, following him in 
importance, the comings of France, Italy and Germany. The collection of Red Arístides, 
that of Manuel Second Sánchez, that of John Boulton and other more, they form today the 
most important starting point for the study of the ceramic of the XIX century. 

Potteries and porcelains of England: During the colonial time these ceramic were not very 
frequent. In fact the English trade was intensified soon after the War of Independence, 
when Venezuela stopped to care Spanish articles. For the years of 1816 at 1819, they 
appear registered the entrances of several English schooners that took among other 
shipments, English pottery for Venezuela. It is necessary to point out the pottery 
responsibilities that Venezuela made to England, especially those that had propagandistic or 
commemorative ends, and that they received the name of «speaking pottery» (term that 
derived of the French speaking faïence, because it was the French pottery in fact, 
particularly that of Nevers, of final of the XVIII century and principles of the XIX century, 
the one that put the commemorative potteries that you/they mentioned to the Revolution in 
fashion). Apart from many collections matters, good copies are today in the Fundación 
John Boulton and in the Museum of Art Colonial Fifth of Anauco. It should be indicated 
that among that «speaking pottery», which understood plates, cups, jars and other 
recipients, the following inscriptions in Spanish were frequent: «Memoria/de the action 
dada/En the Sieviga de/Santa Martha for el/General Carreño», «Alive Venezuela», «Alive 
the Republic of Colombia». Besides allegories and shields, many potteries took the national 
heroes' portraits or of famous characters. Many of these portraits that represent Simón 
Bolívar or Antonio José of Sucre, have a great resemblance with the same English 
engravings of the time; these last ones surely served as model. The portraits are colored, in 
general, by hand using oxides of colors (you color enameled) on the pottery or porcelain. 


 

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