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Climatology


 
The 11° 28 of latitude that separate, of S to N, the most southern end in Venezuela, the 
waterfalls of Húa, of the most northern end, the end of San Román in the peninsula of 
Paraguaná, they don't reach to offer a sufficiently differentiated thermal gradation since, in 
their group, the Venezuelan territory occupies a portion of the fringe tropical north in which 
the stockings termométricas at level of the little sea differs from a place to another. Others 
are the factors that condition the Venezuelan climatology originating a diversity of climates 
that you/they provide a rich variety to the economic life of the country regarding the 
agricultural production, the livestock breeding and the forest exploitation. It is, mainly, of 
the relief and of the dynamics of the winds. Assisting to the altitude, they make their 
presence in Venezuela the entirety of the 6 possible thermal floors in the fringe intertropical 
of the planet. In Venezuela, these floors agree with the following altitudes: I step tropical or 
warm that goes of the level from the sea to the 800 m and where the thermal stockings 
oscillate from the 28 to the 22 °C, being able to register extreme maxims of 44 °C and 
minimum extreme of 12 °C; I step thermal subtropical between the 800 and the 1.500 m 
with annual stockings that you/they go from the 22 to the 18 °C and with extreme of 38 and 
of 8 °C; I step temperate of 1.500 to the 2.000 m with annual stockings of 18 and 14 °C and 
you carry to an extreme of 32 and 4 °C; I step cold from the 2.000 to the 3.000 m with 
annual stockings of 14 and 9 °C and you carry to an extreme of 25 and of 2 °C; I step 
paramero from 3.000 to the 4.600 or 4.700 m with annual stockings of 9 °C and -1 °C and 
with extreme of 23 and -5 °C; I step gelid of 4.600 m or 4.700 m to the 5.007 m with 
annual stockings of -1 to -4 °C. In the highest Andean summits and especially in the pick 
Bolivar, the snow are perennial and they are even formed glaciers. To be a territory located 
the N of the equatorial line, the oscillations of the half temperature along the year are barely 
notorious. Only in the most northern part in Venezuela, among 11 12°, it is reached to 
perceive a descent of the half temperature, with fresh dawns, in the months that correspond 
to the winter of the north hemisphere. That that yes it is very notorious along the 24 hours 
of the day, it is the strong change of temperature that is experienced between the 0:00 hours 
and the 13:00 hours. In the low lands and especially the llaneras of the interior not 
conditioned by the proximity of the sea, the ascent of the temperature between the dawn 
and the signal hours the 20 °C can reach. So soon it begins to evening, the temperature 
declines providing to the human body a sensation of cold quickly although the 
environmental temperature is superior to the 20 °C. 
To each thermal floor it corresponds a peculiar agricultural production of agreement with 
the temperatures stockings; except, in the floors thermal paramero and gelid, in which it is 
not possible to carry out any agricultural activity. The diversity of the temperatures for 
altitude, imposed certain traditional vestments that persist especially among the rural 
population. The ruana, for example, constitutes the piece of the inhabitants' of the high 
Andean mountains peculiar coat. The cotton fabrics and of white color, they dominate the 
gear of the llanero the one which, when goes to horse for the savannas it takes I get a 
blanket in forecast of the cold of the night or to cover if it happens a cloudburst. The marine 
facade of Venezuela is subjected to the action of the Trade winds of the NE. These very 
constant winds penetrate inland for the depressions that open up to the Caribbean like they 
are those of the lake of Maracaibo, that of the Yaracuy, that of Windward, and that of 
Unare. When contacting these winds in their advance for inland the mountain ranges and 
serranías, they originate dense condensations; due to this, the volume of the rains in the 
slopes of these mountain ranges and serranías, as well as in the low lands that extend to 
their feet, it is usually considerable. For the AND and coming from the Atlantic, winds that 
travel the Venezuelan central depression penetrate of AND to OR until finding, in their free 
journey, the unbeatable obstacle of the mountain range of you Walk them to whose contact 
is formed between the months of April or May and until December, dense clouds that cover 
great part of the plain and of which come off strong cloudbursts that make grow green the 
vegetation llanera. The seasonal régime of a rainy season, the winter, and another of 
drought, the summer, to all the long of the physical year, it is very widespread in the whole 
country; but geographical environments exist in which register 2 rainy seasons. In other 
environments, the drought is very permanent and they even exist other where the dry time 
is hardly experienced. They are areas of a single rainy season: the valleys of Aragua, the 
western high plains, the central high plains, the low plains, the depression of Unare, the 
tables and other regions; as long as they register 2 rainy seasons, the llanada barloventeña, 
the depression of Yaracuy, the sector S of the depression of Maracaibo, the depression of 
the Táchira and the delta of the Orinoco. In all these regions, one of the rainy seasons is 
notoriously more important that the other one and the most important is the one that 
regulates the agricultural tasks more strongly. In the Guianese lands the volume of the 
precipitations goes from annual stockings of about 1.000 mm in the savannas of the NE of 
the region with center in Ciudad Bolívar, until reaching superior stockings to the 3.000 mm 
in the state Amazons. The immense region of Guayana as much regarding this state as to 
the formations orográficas dominated by the tepuyes, is subjected to the winds coming from 
the amazon hilea; some winds highly loaded with vapor of water; of here that the rains are 
plentiful to all the long of the year; and consequently, dominate the leafy forests so much in 
the low lands in those traveled by the rivers Orinoco and Black, related by the Casiquiare, 
like in the crossed lands for the river Cuyuní. The lands of a not very marked relief and that 
they are swept by the trade of the NE, they receive very scarce precipitations like it is the 
case of the lands of the Peasant's peninsula, of the N of the depression of Maracaibo, of the 
coast of Falcon, of the peninsula of Paraguaná, of the peninsula of Araya and of the islands 
of the Caribbean. In these lands it can lapse an entire year in which the accumulated 
precipitations don't overcome the 250 mm. In the low lands located in the eolic shade of a 
high formation orográfica, the precipitations are usually of little quantity being located 
yearly below the 600 mm of stocking, just as it happens in the savannas and tables that 
extend to the oriental SO of the solid one. On the other hand, when coinciding 2 or more 
winds of marine origin take place high precipitations and the most notorious case in 
Venezuelan lands, it is that of the delta of the Orinoco where winds of the NE act, of the 
AND and of the YOU. It also contributes to that take place in the delta plentiful rains that 
you/they overcome the 2.000 mm of stocking yearly, the constant evaporation of the 
permanently humid floors as consequence of the arms and pipes of the Orinoco. In 
Tucupita, the precipitations annual stockings are of 1.680 mm. In the sectors of the country 
in which the angles orográficos is of great magnitude, the volume of the precipitations 
reaches discharges figures. In the angle that you/they form the you Walk merideños with 
the Andean brunch coming from Colombia, the rains reach, even, you mediate of 4.500 
mm. Among you Walk them merideños and the mountains of Tamá, they are overcome the 
3.000 mm. The angle formed by the mountain range of the Costa and that of the Interior 
that frames the llanada barloventeña, allows that in The Handsome one the stocking reaches 
the 2.800 mm. In the angle whose sides are the mountain of it Gave birth to and the solid 
one oriental, the precipitations overcome the 2.000 mm. In Margarita island the 
precipitations they only have importance in the sector of Salamanca and in The Asunción's 
valley because the relief acts favorably when taking a short cut the humid winds coming 
from the NE, observing you stockings of 1.300 mm in Salamanca and of 1.100 mm in The 
Asunción. In contrast, in Tip of Stones, they are only reached the 350 mm and in 
Juangriego, the 680 mm. can snow in you Walk them Venezuelans starting from the 4.000 
m and they register snowy very repeated in the superior heights to the 4.800 m. The 
evaporation, as consequence of the high temperatures stockings that register in the low 
lands as well as for the high heatstroke that registers in the same ones and that it can reach 
the 3.000 hours a year, it is very considerable and superior to the volume of the rains. 
explains to it the reason for which must be appealed to the included watering in lands that 
you/they receive precipitations stockings annual superiors to the 1.200 mm. Of here that in 
the plains and in sectors where the annual stockings reach the 1.300 m like it happens in 
Prison, the reservoir of the Guárico was built. The high heatstroke to all the long of the 
coast of the Caribbean favors in supreme degree the use during the whole year, of the 
lingering and wide sandy beaches. In the case that a cloudburst, its duration takes place it is 
usually short and to little it glows the sun again. Being the annual day hours of some 4.380, 
they are diverse the towns of the coast that of this number of hours of brightness, a total of 
2.800 at 3.000 is of heatstroke. This so high heatstroke to the effects of the use of the 
beaches comes alleviated by the almost constant wind coming from the sea or of the one 
that descends for the hillsides of the mountains that are he near, with that which, the 
demurrage to the shade is frankly pleasant. This group of climatic factors has stimulated the 
installation of spas to all the long of the coast, which are favored by the temperature of the 
marine waters that you/they usually stay between the 23 and the 27 °C. 
The type of traditional housing of agreement with each climatic atmosphere of the country, 
although has responded equally in their construction to the materials that were by hand, 
made comfortable to the so much demands climatic local for the way of using these 
materials as for the distribution of the environments of the housing. The use of the 
bahareque as well as of the paloapique, it is peculiar of the low and warm lands, where the 
one roofed of palm it is good insulating of the heat and protection against the rains. The 
walls of thick wall are effective against the cold of the high lands and against the heat, in 
the warm atmospheres. In the peninsula of Paraguaná where the rains are of very scarce 
volume and the winds of the very strong NE, the traditional housing to the west of the 
peninsula is of almost horizontal roof and of mud; and it protects to the house of the wind, a 
wall separated from the housing. In the house of colonial type the rooms open their doors to 
a covered corridor that surrounds the interior patio. This way, it is enjoyed inside the house 
of some shady and consequently fresh atmospheres that you/they take advantage to install 
hammocks and chinchorros. In the towns of the coast the I whiten of the external walls it 
diminishes the recalentamiento of the same first floor the effects of the solar rays. In the 
state Amazons indigenous groups as the piaroas, they build their housings with an 
inclination very accused of the roof due to the strong and frequent rains. The ranch llanero 
usually has the kitchen separated from the housing in order to that the heat and the smoke 
don't penetrate in the rooms. In the floors thermal cold and paramero of you Walk them and 
amid the main room of the housing, lit the fire to cook at the same time that it provided heat 
to the residents. The employment of the gas has made disappear this fire type in earth. 
The existence of local or sectoral climates that you/they are singled by the intervention of 
some factor or of diverse factors, it diversifies even more the Venezuelan climatology. 
Among the high plains and you Walk them the piedemonte fringe that covers wide surfaces 
of the Portuguese states and Barinas extends. In her the descending winds act of you Walk 
them as well as those that come from the Atlantic after traveling the plains of AND to O. 
The contact of both eolic masses favors the condensation of the vapor of water transported 
by the wind llanero originating precipitations stockings of 1.800 mm in Barinas and of 
1.700 mm in Guanare. When the descending wind reaches force, they are made feel its 
effects in the middle of plain where it is known with the name of wind barinés that is able 
to lift roofs and to knock down trees. In the coast and especially in Puerto Cabello, they 
register from time to time, gusts of dry wind that descend of the mountain range of the 
Costa and that they are known with the calderetas name. In the valley of Caracas with 
stockings pluviométricas of 800 mm to 1.050 mm, the half temperature oscillates in the 21 
°C, with extreme of 33,1 and 8,6 °C. The rains usually come from the AND and they enter 
to the valley for the one opens up of Petare coming from Windward. The contact of the 
winds coming from the sea and that they ascend for the hillsides of the mountains, as well 
as those that travel the surface of the lake of Maracaibo and they ascend for the valleys of 
the rivers Motatán and Chama, they cause dense fog that originate the vegetation of cloudy 
forest and they frequently block the free visibility for the highways. Dense fog usually 
present also in contact with the oriental high hillsides of the solid one and of the moor of 
Tamá. These fog favor the cultivation of the coffee since they provide humidity at the 
same time that shade. 
The lightning or lighthouse of the Catatumbo that it is observed to great altitude from the 
lake of Maracaibo is among the phenomenons related with the climatology. It is a 
continuous lightning of the one which and for the altitude, the sound doesn't arrive from the 
thunder to earth. Another phenomenon is the illusion that can be observed in the plains and 
in Paraguaná like consequence of the step of the solar light for layers of air of very different 
temperature. The electric tempests are very frequent in the state Amazons where the 
considerable rains and high temperature believe the forest pluvial macrotérmica. The 
hurricanes of the Caribbean don't reach the Venezuelan costs, that which has not impeded 
that in some occasions the line of the hurricane has produced damages, just as it happened 
in 1933 in Margarita island and in the peninsula of it Gave birth to. M.A.V. 


 

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