Site search Web search

Introd-Venezuela

Vzla Key Facts

Regions-Vzla-(8)

States-Vzla (24)

Maps-Vzla-(100)

Circuit&EcoTours

Travel-Agcy-Int

Eco-Travel-Agcy

Earthwise-Travels

Eco-Travellers

Accommodations

Road-Maps

Nat-Parks

Nat-Monuments

Protected-Areas

Nature-Calendar

Recreation-Parks

Eco-Routes-Map

The Amazon

The Andes

Caribbean-Island

Coastal Cloud F.

The LLanos

The-Orinoco-Delta

Gran-Sabana

Los Roques

Birdwatching

Extinction

Animals-Vzla

Vzla´s Birds

Archaelogy

Pobladores

Etnic-Indian Map

History

Geography

Traditions

Folklore

Dances

Fiestas

Music

Artesanias

Popular-Paints

Ceramics

Feeding

Gastronomia

Culture

National-Symbols

Natural-Resources

Toponimia

Society

Education

Zoology

Botany

Climatology

Ecology

Fear Environ

Eco-Regions

ER-Araya

ER-Tepuis

ER-Apure

ER-Catatumbo

ER-Los Andes

ER-Delta

ER-Guayana

ER-Cordill-Cost 

ER-Mangroves

ER-Gran Sabana

ER-Paraguana

ER-Llanos

ER-Wetlands

ER-Lara-Falcon

Hydro-Cuencas

Eco-Library

On Assignment

Gallery-Photos

Inside-Vzla

By Roads

Vial-Maps

Order-Territorial

Outdoors-Advent

Expeditions

Travel-Desk

Web Travel Sites

Associates

Nature-Films 

Web-Stores

Shopping-90Stor

e-commerce

Yellow Pags

Search Engine

Free email

Free News

Useful-Links

Intnal-Flights

Tourist-Service

Travel-Links

TourismOffice-W.

Tourism-Glosary

World-Reservat

Eco-T-Lat Am

Green-Travels-W

Heritage-W

EcoTourism-W

EcoT-World-Dir.

EcoT-Events

Eco-World

Eco-Links-W

Biodiversity-W

Conservation-W

Eco-Founds-W.

Eco-Environ-W

Eco-Travels-W

Sensitive-Areas

Eco-System-W

Development-W

Ecology-W

Sustainable-W.

Environment-W

Environ-Impact

Environment-Edu

Environ-Treaties

Environ-Laws-W

Environ-Ramsar

Conservation-W

Ecotourism-Pro

Nature Union-W

Parks&Reserv-W

Eco-Jobs-W

Eco-Events-W

Nature-Heritage

Community-W

Eco-Articles-W.

Webography

Founds Directory

Glossary

Public-Library

Embassies-Vzla

Support-Program

Venezuela-Laws

Tourism Law

Conservation Law

Vzla-Tourism-Dir

Eco-Billboard

Serv Directories

Online-Sources

Eco-Consultant

Eco-Entrepeneur

Eco-Bulletin

Realty Rent&Sell

Forums

Guestbook

Live-Chat

Class-Aids

Vote-Caster

Greetings-Card

Tell a Friend 

Financial-Tools

News-World

Journal-World

Satellite-Images

Weather-Vzla

World-TimeClock

Web-Forum

Stock-Market

Add-Links

Feedback-form

Faqs

Publicsize w Us

Our Mission

Our Objetives

Join Us

Contact-Us

Membership

Travel-Groups

Dissc-Groups

Reader-Feedb

Subscribe-eNews

Suggestions

Blog-Spot

Wallpapers

ICQ

Home

Culture 

The culture, in its diverse meanings, from the planetary one until the tribal and primitive, 
has its origin in the human nature and it would not be conceivable if our species 
disappeared. It is obvious to say it although you evidence as these it doesn't perceive them 
most to be it inserts in them. The immersion in the forest doesn't allow to see the tree. So 
that it will be leaving of the men, of the Venezuelans in this case, like we will refer to that 
abstract and general dimension that she/he calls himself the culture. But before it suits to 
point out that the culture, as the human life, is subjected to existential processes of 
conservation and deterioration, of explosion and of inertia, of renovation and decline, of 
transformation and resurgencia. Dynamics, malleable, buried or torrential, persists and its 
to exist sometimes has aspects unknown or contrary to traditional forms that we believed 
unalterable. Anything is unalterable in existing cultural, except for the existence of the 
phenomenon in yes, plural, diverse, in dispersion or in contraction, interiorizado for the 
individual or exteriorizado for the multitude. Culture is to make, to think, to build, to build, 
to collapse, to work with the intelligence, with the hand and with its extensions, the tools, 
the technique that already constitutes a supranaturaleza in its incredible growth. The culture 
begins being fruit of the breeding and of the cultivation of the earth. Their ritual body, 
ceremonial, religious, is born of that confrontation with the nature that was given to the 
man. Then it modifies and believe new forms when she/he becomes urban. In that long one 
to make cultural, the species reaches today the unheard possibility to be destroyed itself of a 
blow, and of destroying the forms from the indispensable animal and agrarian life to the 
species. Today more than ever, more than in the times of intense religiosity, more than in 
the mystic or occult sects of all the countries and ages, the supreme interrogation is 
imposed, to which don't answer the science neither the technique, of the man's last end. The 
answer absence is in the center of the great western contemporary neurosis. 
The Venezuelan culture and their archetypes 
The evolutionary process of the Venezuelan culture is short. It begins with the arrival of the 
Spaniards and she/he runs until our days. It hardly counts 5 centuries. In comparison with 
the cultures of the Asia, of the Middle East, of the Indo-European ones, we are leaning out 
to the world. We are witness of our brief one to happen cultural. This circumstance is only 
in the world. We arrive of last and the discovery, the Conquest, the Colony, the 
Independence, they were yesterday. Behind a mesopotámico there are 10.000 years. 
This proximity to the origin, that past lack, ties us to concluded signs of presumed cultural 
identity: the Indians, the caciques integrated to María Lionza's popular cult, the black 
Miguel, Alonso Andrea of Ledesma, Juan Francisco from León, the eminent persons whose 
unceasingly adored vault presides over the academic and official Bolivar, a traced hero of 
the living rooms of painting pompier of the Second French Empire. For that reason it is 
constantly imposed to recover the presence of Bolivar in a human, contradictory and 
existential dimension, within reach of the free critic and of the creative discussion. 
The transculturación taken place in something more than half century, for the development 
of the industry of hydrocarbons, robbed us of some signs of identity, traditional, quite 
relative apart from this: the colonial large house, the country property of great patio to dry 
the coffee or the cocoa, the legend of the plain with their centaurs, you stamp them of 
armored and armed conquerors, the blouse peasant and canvas shoes, the civil boss of 
flannel and with wide leather belt, the heart hat, the low joropo the palms, the drums in the 
cacaotales, the Christmas carol and the meticulous manger transformed into microcosms, 
the show guzmancista parodying the court of Napoleón III, certain nights of family frights 
in the city rustic collection in the homes or in the fields of disseminated ranches and 
counted country properties protectors, the age of the horse, and more to the bottom, hidden 
in the folds of the soul, the terrible commander's images, of the dictators, which spread to 
melt in prints it unalterable of Juan Vicente Gómez. That that this objetivó was the 
inconfesable dream of the «male» Venezuelan, brother of other «males» Latin Americans 
of agrarian or urban origin. It is a dream of power: feud, region, absolute headquarters, the 
enemy's implacable repression, mystery, incomunicabilidad sacralizada, paternalismo, 
genetic fecundity without marriage, in the concubinage. To Gómez she/he brought it 
happening irrational historical, that second nature created by the human imperfection whose 
shot energy is uncontrollable. (Let us remember to a first theatrical and juvenile Bolivar, of 
foot on the ruins of the convent of San Hyacinth destroyed by the earthquake of 1812, 
challenging to the nature if it was opposed to their designs, and to the other Bolivar, the 
critic of their own work, the lucid and disenchanted, checking that the revolution is an 
element that you can not manage, more indocile than the wind.) 
To Gómez she/he also brought it the deep nature, underlying of the Venezuelans. If in an 
aspect it is the political consequence of the wrong to be governed itself of an unstable and 
poor society; in another it is product of a collective unconscious fascinated by the idea of 
power without control, for the image of the «terrible Father»; the corresponding female is 
Mrs. Bárbara, robbed of her final redemption, attended by the fished maquiritares and 
yanomamis, able to become beautiful maidens, but endowed with jagged vaginas; for 
Pulowi, the divinity peasant that attracts the youths toward her underground or submarine 
domains and there who the taking, is bundle forever to her, although she/he returns with its 
permission to the surface; María Lionza that agglutinates in its modern cult made of 
Caribbean and Venezuelan transculturaciones, the most diverse cultural manifestations, 
from an aboriginal archetype, until recent contributions of religions Afro-American (vudú, 
Cuban santería, Brazilian macumba, Caribbean changó) everything centered it around the 
figuration of a powerful and beautiful white woman that their domains mounted in a danta 
travels and accompanied by a court of variable tipología. Mrs. Bárbara, those fished of 
jagged vagina of the high Orinoco, Pulowi, María Lionza is beneficent or malicious aspects 
of the Terrible Mother; Gómez and Mrs. Bárbara have been associated more than once. The 
one one and the other one are consequences of the violence of the men and a predominant 
nature, full with natural scenarios that Domingo Faustino Sarmiento proposed for the 
literary and able creation of reflecting the fight between the barbarism and the civilization. 
Gómez realísimo and Mrs. Bárbara literary fiction, they contain elements numinosos of the 
Venezuelan, mestizo collective unconscious or not, able to attract, to seduce, to kill, the 
same as those night ladies that appeared in the deserted squares of the cities decimonónicas 
or in certain places of the field, roads and river banks, like an unexpected erotic offering, I 
object sexual always fantasized in that puritan society, and that when being kissed, they 
became monsters, Sayonas or Whiners that went mad to the noctambulant and they could 
cause him the death. 
We ignore to what extent the time lapsed from the time of Gómez and Mrs. Bárbara, 
propitiated the Venezuelan being's clarification and the superación of those forms 
numinosas. With regard to Gómez it is noticed in more than a study, she/he novelizes, 
report, chronicle, movie, an attraction that masquerades of sociological and historical 
interest. The rejection is intellectual. Who suffered it they go dying after their death and it 
seemed that their works can not be condemned in block. So that conquering once again, the 
patriarch of Maracay imposes his man figure again separated, of «terrible Father», this time 
not to the history, but to the literary fiction and the legend. On the other hand Mrs. Bárbara 
fiction has lost validity in the literary field, because the ulterior narrators to Galicians 
thrashed other roads and they stopped to feel their schematic, symbolic or folkloric 
characters, as well as they discarded the lineal, argumentational and symmetrical 
composition of their novels and they rejected the intentions moralizantes, judging that these 
were completed in detriment of the existential authenticity. 
You witness arquetipales and concluded tipificaciones they locate us in the limbo of the 
origins, that is to say they link our being with primitive vivencias whose analogy with other 
similar ones allowed Carl Gustav Jung to create its general theory of the collective 
unconscious and it should also link us with the African estate, little studied and with the 
hearth of the estate of Iberian, Greek, Celtic, Roman, Visigoths and Arab, never sufficiently 
vivenciada and well-known in reason of the resentments and desgarrones taken place by the 
matricide or cultural patricide of the War of Independence and for the limitations of the 
academic thought or of the school teaching. 
The indigenous presence 
To feel Indians doesn't pass of being an intellectual artifice. To affirm that we are African it 
is part of another truth, the one of it treats her of black. To be defined as Spaniards comes 
closer more to the reality, because our culture, in its key lines, is Hispanic. As for solving 
the problem saying that we are mestizo that is to say very little, because all the men of all 
the continents, somehow are mestizo, and the history of the human culture is not but that of 
the miscegenations taken place by the invasions and conquests, from Sumerian until the 
current Republic surafricana, from the India to the current United States, from the old 
Greece to this incipient Venezuela that to escape to its vacuity, to its lack of identity, to its 
logical complex of recently formed town, to the short of its immediate past, she/he goes 
unceasingly to clichés and stereotypes of museum of the history, of the agrarian folklore 
and of the geography, when it is not precipitated by a retroactive nostalgia, a luck of return 
dream to the maternal uterus, and Indian is discovered, contemporary of Sorocaima and 
Guacaipuro, of Manaure and Tamanaco, of Terepaima and Chicuramay. That literary 
indigenismo gave place, however, to a poemario, rough (1924) of Antonio Arráiz that 
points out, according to an approach of mandatory chronology, the appearance of the 
vanguard and of which Arturo Uslar Pietri said that formed «...parte of the Venezuelan 
soul...», for his generation. «rough [she/he added] she/he came to be the first fortunate 
rehearsal of unification of our poetry and of our reality...» indeed, that poemario not 
completed that function because it established an unquestionable Venezuelan identity, 
rooted in a knowledge and in a deeply indigenous vivencia, but because insurgió, on one 
hand, against the rhetorical poetry, still attached to the madrigals, to the superficial 
idealizaciones of the neorromanticismo and of a modernism that took place never, in our 
lyrical one, to a great figure, and for another against the Victorian puritanismo. In both 
aspects, rough it meant a tremendous shake and it produced contrary or favorable 
passionate reactions. The offering of the 40 poems of rough is: «To the big ones dead, to 
the glorious lineage: Sitting Bull, eagle, Montezuma, prince; Nezahualcoyot, poet; 
Cuauhtemoctzin, tiger; Caupolicán, Handless Capac...», she/he registers inside the 
indigenist context proclaimed by the Mexican Revolution and their muralistas school, but it 
excludes Guacaipuro, that which demonstrates that Arráiz stops, was more than a telluric 
exaltation, Americanist that of an anthropological local recovery of the Venezuelan Indian. 
When assuming that indianidad, the poet thought presently, in a «virgin America», in a 
«Indian America without Spaniards and without Christianity», that is to say in a possibility 
nuevomundista that without coinciding fully with the Address to the poetry (1823) of 
Beautiful Andrés, it grants to the American continent a rebirth virtue. Arráiz seems to obey 
to Beautiful when this invited the poets to sing to «America, of the young sun handcuffs...» 
Beautiful it proposed, as initiator that was of the Venezuelan literature, the feeling of 
America like New World, and the one of the return to the earth, as vital realization and 
ethics. These feelings were accepted by the writers and they constitute the most constant 
line of creation artistic Venezuelan. Unavoidable it was that it was intertwined with the 
exaltation of the Indian, always seen as the Good Savage. The topic of the return to the 
earth inspired such a remarkable poem as Creole Silva (1901), of Francisco I Rope Martí, 
and you novelize as Peony (1890), of Manuel Vicente Romerogarcía, Reinaldo Solar 
(1920) and Mrs. Bárbara (1929) of Galician Rómulo, and the House of José Rafael 
Pocaterra Ábila, written in the jail, between 1919 and 1922, but published in 1946. Besides 
these works, it persists until today, saturating diverse narrative, poetic creations and 
ensayísticas, the feeling that the city constitutes a phenomenon of alienating 
transculturación, in opposition to the field, deposit of American telurismo. Of course, it is 
no longer properly a message, as the one of Beautiful, I Rope Martí, Galician and 
Pocaterra, but of a luck of nostalgia particularly evident imaginante in writers born in the 
county. Examples of aesthetic improvement of the topic paisajístico and nuevomundista are 
Poems of the night and of the earth (1943) and My father the immigrant (1945) of Vicente 
Gerbasi. But returning to rough, the most important thing didn't rest in that recovery 
Americanist and indigenist, but in the lyrical and vehement statement of a new erotic 
pantheist and liberated of the obstacles of the patriarchal puritanismo. 
The poems of rough, to which Arráiz will always remain faithful because its thematic one 
will settle in the passionate relationship of earth-woman-country, they were not only 
quarreled with great part of what was considered as matter of inspiration lyrical and good 
pleasure, but with the good one to live, the good manners, the behaviors of the bourgeois 
ceremonial, the values of the patriarchal and homelike tabulation. Arráiz fused in oneself 
literary forge its biographical experiences, from the death of the dear dog until the lover's 
exaltation, transformed into Reina India, and the romantic vision, idealized of the 
indigenous thing, one of whose functions consisted, when proposing that return toward the 
origin, to react against the prejudiced morals and inhibitoria that it began the natural 
erotismo, to restart, to found a new life in a new world. That messianic and utopian idea 
broadly studied from their origin in the Rebirth, it also fed Marcos Vargas's adventure 
adánica in the great novel Canaima (1935), of Galician Rómulo, which grants to the Indians 
of the high Orinoco, a paper fixer of the myths of the origin. 
rough, that song of existential insurgencia almost coincided symbolically with the famous 
blowout of the well Muddy núm. 2, of the Venezuela Oil Concessions belonging to the 
group Royal Dutch-Shell, in Big Mene, the month of December of 1922. The black source 
of oil lifted as a glistening feather in the hot air of the Zulia, still announced the great 
change of a country attached to homemade customs, still convinced that the true wealth was 
the agriculture and the breeding, still wrapped in the parade of the ghosts nocturne, still 
trafficked by packs, horsemen encobijados and carts. 
The Indians, those that are, settled down in different regions of the Venezuelan territory, 
outline two queries: the one of knowing of where they proceed and how they live in their 
cultural relationship with the means. To the first thing diverse not very satisfactory 
hypothesis responds, and that they open subtle and endless discussions. At second o'clock, 
on the other hand, the new ethnography created partly by Claude Lévi-Strauss, offers 
answers esclarecedoras. The hypotheses of the origins allow all speculation luck, from that 
of the deceased Rafael Requena, an imaginative man that arrived to the convincing that the 
name of the continent doesn't come from that of Américo Vespucio, being really his that of 
Alberico, but of the denomination of the same Indians, that which tries to demonstrate with 
a before Columbus map in which diverse appointments toponímicas made up with the root 
amaraca, moraca and maraca appear, and that the fabulous continent of the Atlantis left 
their prints in the ceramic of the Indians that you/they populated the banks of the lagoon of 
Valencia, with their venus of Tacarigua at the same time phallus and calipígicas, until Paul 
Rivet suppositions has more than enough diverse immigrations, those some of Oceanía and 
the other of the Asia. It is not given us to know the principle of anything; behind what we 
believe to be the origin, she/he is constantly discovered the expansion of the past toward 
spaces and hazy times. Taken this confirmation, until the thought of the Genesis, a hole 
opens up infinite apparently, where the principle and the end are played. And the human 
knowledge becomes impotent. 
What gets the attention is the fact of the diversity of before Columbus cultures, those some 
developed degree and the other ones on high in state of individuals recolectores, hunters 
and nomadic. Although cultural differences are observed among the old inhabitants of our 
territory whose tribal varieties have been established by the specialists, in any case those 
reached the religious, mythological splendor, ritual, literary, architectural, sculptural and 
plastic, of the nahuas, of him Mayan-quichés, of the chibchas and of the Inca. Venezuela, 
because, it was not favored, in comparison with Mexico, Centro América, Colombia, Peru 
and Bolivia. The militancy of the caribeses propitiated the sadism and the cruelty of the 
conquerors; the combats threw a considerable balance of dead Indians; the miscegenations 
were almost always operated by kidnappings and violence like it happened along the 
human history. The conquest, apart from this, enthroned the violation. The Indians were 
weaker in warring technology than the Spaniards and other adventurous in search of gold 
and fortune, but their world was not idyllic, edénico, innocent, as they imagine it and the 
inventors of the fable of the imagined it «good savage» and of the natural man's virtues. But 
they deserved to live, to complete their vital and cultural trajectory, and to not be penned 
and murdered without reason, mainly for people that Christian was said. The cross became 
sword. 
From half-filled of the XIX century, after the columnists of the conquest and of the Colony, 
scanners, archaeologists, anthropologists, etnógrafos, those some foreigners and the other 
Venezuelans, picked up the cultural manifestations of missing or alive aboriginal groups. 
The work of diverse Catholic missionaries, as Caesarean brother of Armellada and of the 
Foundation The you Leave him, it is particularly meritorious. Moving away from the 
university cientificismo, of any objectivity etnográfica, a singular personality, Gilberto 
Antolínez, wrote a visionary book and of great invention power and mythological 
associations titled Toward the Indian and his world (1946). Their academic level leaves a 
lot that to want, but on the other hand its capacity for vivenciar the indigenous myths, to 
recreate them in big cool airs of overpowering lyricism, to link them with the universal 
culture, with the archetypes, it locates that work not properly in an investigation field but of 
creation. Antolínez interiorizó the knowledge culturológico that had on the indigenismo and 
their mythology, to operate with this in ontologic form. Before to specify and to inform on 
the most novel studies in the Indian, we want to refer an anecdote that demonstrates the 
immanent powers of the art able to transform chances and chance in poetic significances. 
For the centennial of the independence, the Venezuelan Government requested sculptor 
Eloy Palacios a monument that represented the battle of Carabobo and that historical geste. 
Palaces elaborated a sketch that was fused in Italy and inaugurated in 1911. The monument 
occupied a place adapted in the main avenue of the aristocratic urbanization of The 
Paradise. And the woman that crowned him, foot setting on the heart of a chaguaramo 
palm, it was called unconsciously by the masse, The India. Otherwise the town has not 
proceeded when it describes to María Lionza like a white woman of wavy black, crowned 
hair and portadora of the real scepter. According to Angelina Pollak Eltz who has dedicated 
many years to the investigation of María Lionza's cult, it would be the empress's image 
Eugenia of Montijo, that which would offer an important date to study the development of 
this religion. In the same way, in the cult to the divinity yorubana Yemayá, originating of 
the coast of Guinea, this is usually represented in Bay (Brazil), in siren's mediterranean 
form. 
The operated sincretismos, similar in their final result, they respond however to contrary 
mechanisms, because of indigenous divinity, María Lionza to who Antolínez identifies with 
a figuration of owner of the waters, Wahuyara of the thought religious arawako, Loreley of 
our forests, and Yemayá of divinity African yoruba, therefore quarter note, they become 
white women while the magnificent one European that posed for the monument of Palaces, 
she/he becomes in «Indian», for work of the collective unconscious. 
Eloy Palacios, in an inexplicable way, using forms and conventional, academic procedures, 
it not only composed a work that escapes completely, to the requested motivation, 
glorification of the battle of Carabobo, but to the common places that corresponded him, to 
the conceptual limitations that should have been he own. The monument of The Naked 
India -as they used to name him in our childhood the first ones that showed it to us - 
beyond their formal academicism, beyond their procedures, of the anecdote that diminishes 
him, it invents a lyrical sobrerrealidad that approaches it to expressions of the surrealismo 
to come. That grown real palm on a heap of rocks that the drought cracks and of which 
sprouts in all the beauty in its mature ways, a naked woman with the arms on high, imposes 
the dynamics of a jubilant and sensual movement of continuous growth, vegetation that 
finishes in real female, brass down that ascends toward the sky of the tropic, confused with 
the same glass of the trees. Everything in lyrical kidnapping, in invention, in brass fantasy 
and stone, unusual, of a wrong pleasure that marvels as those strange altars sorcerers that 
mix domestic objects with saints' images and amulets, of an erotismo that escapes to the 
proposed allegory, elaborate and at the same harmonious, absurd and at the same time 
fascinating time. The monument of The India of The Paradise constitutes a myth in yes, it 
oozes a mysterious and vital content that perennial youth confers him, she sings in the light 
of every day, she whispers as a foliage in the wind and she affirms the victory of the 
recreated nature. No other work public Venezuelan contains, as this, so much lyricism, so 
much ingenuousness, so much erotismo and so much freedom. The roads of the culture 
follow layouts mysterious many times. These, to be trafficked, require an interiorización in 
general of which lack, the disciplines that worry to figure out that fundamental 
manifestation of the human soul. 
The indianidad frequently looks at herself in the facial features, in conformations of 
anthropological physics and in the behavior of great number of Venezuelans, but the 
cultural condition of most of those individuals integrated to an urban or rural hábitat, it is 
determined by the Spanish inheritance, we are mestizo western. 
They are distinguished many tribal groups, but for the common approach the main 
difference rests among Indians integrated in certain way to the civilization like the 
populations of the Peasant's peninsula, of origin arawako, although they call themselves to 
itself wayúu, and the tribes that live in form savage, in the forests of the Amazons, of the 
Delta Amacuro and of the mountain of Perijá, called by us: waraos or guaraúnos, yaruros 
(in extinction), pemones, caribes, piaroas, motilones, etc. Leaves of the cultural wealth of 
the natives, in the field of the material elaboration as in that of the intellectual and ritual 
elaboration, they have been picked up, but the way of living, the intimate behaviors, they 
have not been exposed but with wisdom and it censors, until methods of structural 
ethnography were imposed. Without entering to qualify the methodology of diverse 
investigations of the indigenous world, in Venezuela it suits to point out that lately they 
have enriched that knowledge exceptional works of anthropologists, etnógrafos and 
scientific of French origin. Two books give test of the validity of methods new 
etnográficos: The circle of Jacques Lizot's fires and The on the way to Michel Perrin's dead 
Indians. These investigations study and they expose this, facts, myths and rites of 
Venezuelan Indians. Another work of exceptional Lizot is titled: The man of the pregnant 
calf, published by the Foundation The you Leave him (1975). Perrin gathered the materials 
of its book with respect to myths and symbols peasants, in 3 demurrages staggered between 
1969 and 1975, in the Colombian Peasant and Venezuelan. Another anthropologist, Marc 
of Civrieux, studied the mythology maquiritare, in his explorations for the Territorio 
Amazonas and other regions of Guayana, along 25 years. Fruit of that immersion in our 
wild world and native is her book Watuna, published by Mount Ávila in 1970. And we 
remember that it was also a French, Henri Him Besnerais who, to half of the decade of 
1940, she/he cohabited with the yaruros of the Capanaparo, to know them better before they 
extinguished. Men also born in other latitudes like J.M. Cruxent and Félix Cardona Puig, 
they carried out expeditions and works of field of first importance. 
The man of the pregnant calf, of Lizot, refers in the most literal way and without granting 
to a story bigger importance that to other, the mythology of the groups yanomami among 
who he lived. Those stories reveal a mythological world, that of the chamanes, shared 
intensely by the collective and vivenciado during the rituals in that she/he wastes away 
massively diverse hallucinogens. It is thought of an impregnated archaic mythology of 
archetypes, of genesic confusions, of constant metamorphosis in that men and animals 
change appearance and they speak the same language. That mythology is very similar to 
that of the maquiritares studied for of Civrieux. On the other hand the mythology and 
simbología peasants reveal transcendent projections related with recurrent astronomical 
phenomenons, and a conception of the world been founded in the oppositions of Juya, to be 
mythical hipermasculino, owner of the rain, unique motive, and Pulowi, underground and 
submarine figuration of the hiperfeminidad, fixed and multiple, owner of the animals, virile 
men's abductor, dañera and devouring. The surprising of The circle of the fires of Lizot, is 
the capacity to reflect the daily life and the performances ritual yanomamis, in totalizing 
sequences in that the banal thing and the wonderful thing mix unceasingly. Lizot doesn't 
also hide anything: the cruellest or more erotic behaviors are referred without emphasis, 
integrated to the structural context. 
The circle of the fires presents to the alive, live Indians, passing without more rupture from 
the ordinary reality to the «not ordinary», of the sexual intercourse to the work, of the 
banquet to the dream, of the rite to the leisure. This closed community on itself puts in 
evidence the fluency of what we could call: to be able to of government embodied in a 
decisive authority. There are alliances and cases. The chamán is more priest and sibyl that 
cacique. The idea of imperative cacicazgo seems a distortion of the western vision. There is 
not government as there is not repressive force, to the government's disposition. In that 
sense we are very far, I don't say of the atrocious Nazi or communist totalitarianisms, but of 
the grandiose image of the Incan State or náhuatl. The peasants, on the other hand, present 
a more authoritarian social system, with their caciques, their clans and their matriarchal 
base, of the one which Pulowi, couple of Juya, is an example; those two mythical beings 
denote a degree of important mythological development, supplemented with the confused 
memory, present in the headdress of the men, of a cosmic relationship between the march 
of the stars and the stations. This observation constitutes an admirable discovery of Perrin. 
With the death of each yanomami she/he dies a time, she/he goes drying off a structure 
previous to the conquest. The yanomamis coexistence, and of Venezuelans it is one of the 
miracles or of the wealth of our cultural identity made of juxtapositions and strata. It can 
not have nostalgia. That walked, walked it is. The experience consumes the fires of the 
origin, it turns off them, there is later only ashy. But something persists -and Lizot knows it 
- when two chamanes, as hierofantes of the rites of the death and mediterranean 
resurrection, as alchemists of the Half Age, exchanges its experiences. 
And this way in that today of millennia the door opens up behind further on toward the like 
she/he opens up right now when the man is able to listen his soul, turned off by a moment 
the mortal fires of the history. The hondura of those mythologies ancestral even more 
painful restitution the quick extinction of those cultures and of those Indians, and it is only 
necessary to point out, as she/he made it Michel Perrin at the end of their book that 
corresponded for ineluctable dialectical, to the foreign and destructive targets, to pick up so 
that they continue living in the books, those secular myths. «...Pertenecemos, [Perrin 
writes] to the peasant's death...» 
The African presence 
The presence of the black ones, contrary to the Indians, one of the favorite foods of our 
literature constituted. Studies exist on this aspect, not only because there was and there are 
authors that their estate afrovenezolana like novelist Juan Pablo Sojo and the poet assume 
Manuel Cardinal red Rodríguez, but because the slavery has as main main character to the 
victims of it treats her and this aberrant form of work was the one that creó the colonial 
agricultural wealth. The Indians faded before the most resistant existence of the black ones, 
more adaptive and more determined in living. Between the Indians and the black ones and 
Spaniards there was little likeness. Among both last an internal sea that was crossed many 
times only mediated. There was black in Spain, from the Arab invasion, in the century VIII; 
África, in a great part of its territory, is mediterranean. But she/he doesn't need to go back 
to so much, to determine that the black ones brought directly of África and their numerous 
descendant are integral part of the process of formation of the towns of hot lands, where 
cultivations like the cane of sugar, the cocoa, the cotton, the indigo one prospered. 
It has been spoken and written on the paper that the black slaves carried out as domestic 
servitude. They were nurses, governess, confidants, cooks, maids of the rich Creoles, 
besides serving the masters, with too much frequency,
Be this the opportunity to point out that the point of view of judging to the black ones as 
inferior beings, savages that didn't contribute anything to the world culture, opinion poured 
by the same Jorge Luis Borges, doesn't have reality some since one the cultures 
negroafricanas, before it treats her, they offered such a varied square as that of America. 
The engravings rupestres and the sizes of the calls ivory venus and limestone, the brasses of 
Benín, the coppers of Dahomey, the fabrics of the ashanti, the sculptures in wood and ivory 
and the ritual masks that influenced in a decisive way, in the XIX century, the new plastic 
tendencies of West, with Pablo Picasso to the head, the ceremonial gears, the ceramic, the 
domestic objects and the furniture, the jewels, the works in iron, figure today in the most 
important museums in West and they attest for a flourishing culture of great mythical and 
magic content that treats her it truncated criminally, from the XVI century. 
The cultures negroafricanas, inclusive the latest as that of the Pygmy, left an important 
remainder in the history of West. Leo Frobenius insisted on diverse products of material 
culture: wooden tablespoons, of ivory, arches, hilts, tumblers, means of divination oracular, 
gorgonas images, linked to representations prehelénicas and etruscas. It grants importance 
to the pervivencia of a compound vault for 16 gods that it seems to correspond that of the 
archaic Greeks. While the number 3, masculine, governed the Hellenic conceptions, the 
number 4, feminine, and its multiple ones, it prevailed in the Atlantic culture, of which is 
part the country of the yoruba. On the other hand the orixás or gods yorubanos and 
dahomeyanos have the same attributes and functions that the Greek gods. Poseidón belongs 
together this way with Olokun, Venus with Yemayá, Hermes with Eschú, Hefaistos with 
Ogún, Asclepios with Ossain, Plow with Changó. To deepen in the protohistoria and the 
history of the black África, when it was not imaginable such an aberrant phenomenon as it 
treats her, it drives until the navigators that traveled the Nile, from Nubia until the Delta, to 
trade with Arabs and Hebrew, with cretenses and tartesos. It was when the Celtic ones 
invaded Spain gradually and they mixed with the Iberian whose origin, according to some 
specialists, African era. From this perspective it is understood that to assume our cultural 
identity implies to go back a lot in the past beyond the Conquest and the Colony. It treats 
her begun in the XVI century, it meant the destruction of cultures in the middle of peak, 
nurtured of a traditional knowledge that linked them with the most remote antiquity. It has 
been affirmed that more than 100.000.000 of black were pulled up of their cities and towns, 
sembradíos and prairies, to become slaves in America; although in such a calculation you 
could have incurred in exaggeration. Difficultly a town can overcome similar trauma; 
nevertheless, the black one resisted and she/he reborned in America being integrated to a 
process tumultuous auroral. 
The Hispanic presence 
Neither the Spanish town neither the Catholic Kings conceptualized in terms of relative 
modernity to their time, to the twilights of the XV century, when it blunts the Rebirth, the 
discovery of a new world and their integration to the Crown of Castile and Aragon. Spain 
already began the confinement on itself, blinded by a Christianization mesianismo 
exacerbated by the victory of the reconquest and the achieved political unit. While 
Columbus and the navigators offer the Catholic Kings a world, these worry mainly to serve 
the Spanish Pope's objectives, Rodrigo Borja or Borgia, for expanderse in the 
Mediterranean and for the interior pacification. Soon the Jews will be expelled of Spain, 
pruning it that one of their more venturesome and more laborious social estamentos. The 
war of the reconquest had propitiated the creation of a soldiery that combatted to obtain 
lands and honors. When being dismissed it constituted a problem of public order. It leaves 
of that army of volunteers without work, it will pass the India. So that as Pedro she/he tells 
it Manuel Arcaya U. in their book The Town council of Caracas: «There was not, because, 
solution of continuity between the company of the reconquest and that of the conquest of 
America. The spirit misional and the means used in an and another was the same ones. The 
Spaniards brought the same institutions that you/they knew in the Peninsula here. As well 
as in the reconquest the Spaniards founded cities and behetrías in the rapturous regions to 
the Arabs, the conquerors from America founded towns to all the long of their route toward 
the interior of this continent, endowing them of their respective town councils». They didn't 
stop in a place to create wealth, to sow, to cultivate and to raise. Seated the town, a 
homestead generally, they followed the march guided by the greed of lands and spoils 
characteristic of the Reconquest, but now increased until the delirium by myths of easy 
enrichment, of fabulous discoveries, one of those which, that of The Gilding, caused 
havocs. Toward ends of the years 1520 they founded cities like New Cádiz and Choir, 
following the pattern that governed in the peninsula. To that fundamental flaw of 
transferring Castilian institutions mechanically to the recently discovered world, without 
taking into account the geographical, telluric, ethnic realities, without meditating a conquest 
project and colonization like they made it for example, the Romans, the distortion of the 
human factor was added, that that Francisco Herrera Luque tried with audacity in his 
polemic book The travelers from India (1961). Herrera Luque maybe spreads too much to 
generalize and it exaggerates when diagnosing as psicóticos when I don't eat psychopaths, 
to the conquerors, although it guesses right in cases like Lope of Aguirre, Juan of Esquivel, 
Juan of Carvajal, Francisco Carvajal or the early of the Welser: Ambrosio Alfínger, Jorge 
of Spira, call the Demented, and Nicolás of Federmann, the Cruel one. Herrera Luque is 
plentiful before in the work mentioned, in biographical, historical references and statistics 
to seat its thesis of mental overload of the Venezuelans and its homicidal tendencies. But 
we think that other factors and not only the genetic one, they produced the sanguinary feat 
of the conquest and their ulterior derivations, which determined the backwardness of the 
Spanish colonies, in connection with those that the Protestant emigrants were founded in 
the North American continent, one century later. 
The paper assumed by the Spanish Monarchy, of crusade of the contrarreforma, the 
confinement toward inside a casticidad always recycled by the cult to the geste of the 
reconquest, they produced a superb imperial isolation, I expire ahead of time whose more 
negative consequences were, besides the Inquisition, being outside of the Rebirth, of the 
industrial revolution and of the trade promoted by the nascent capitalism. Felipe III will 
finish off the Spanish closing, expelling to the Mozarabic ones. Spain felt owner of the 
world and it was not it of herself, because in the Peninsula they prospered a decomposition 
social and economic indetenibles, an intellectual asphyxia that produced the explosion of a 
mystic literature in the one for reaction that rebrotaba an Arab root, that of the mysticism 
sufí, and later the decadence of the Baroque. Spain didn't want to recognize the Arabic-
Andalusian and Jewish culture, neither the poetry trovadoresca exaltadora of the courteous 
profane love, but beyond the critical realism, of the somber contrarreformismo of the 
Austrias, of the Inquisition and of the daily one to act and to preach of an obtuse clergy, it 
continued flowing the Arab estate and it reappeared in works as the Book of good love of 
the Archpriest of Hita and Don Juan Manuel's count Lucanor, in the popular profane 
poetry, in the one she/he sings Andalusian, in the impregnated mystic literature in sufismo 
that of Catholic theology. And with own genius, Miguel of Cervantes revived, it deceives 
deceiving, the idealización trovadoresca of the courteous love, more than the noble love, in 
the Quixotic vision of Dulcinea. Because only the end amors and not the avid noble 
naturalismo of an effective carnal realization, it could be about around an impossible lady 
as which Don Cuisse dreamt. But in Spain, under the weight of an imperial monarchy of 
hallucinated kings, all the forms of intellectual and spiritual expansion had to masquerade 
of rigid Catholic orthodoxy to exist and to show. The Cuisse has almost always been seen 
like a critic of the errant chivalry. We think that it is a new and powerful version of the 
courteous love of the minstrels, which took place among the XII and XIII centuries, the 
birth of the idealized erotic literature but quarreled with the sacrament of the marriage and 
the reproduction idea, as well as it combatted bloodily when tasting you. Everything took 
place the sinking of that refined culture and the spoil of the counts of Tolosa. Aragon and 
Catalonia supported them, but more attractive than the difficult unit occitana, it was the 
born Spanish unit of the reconquest and of the coalition of the crowns of Aragon and 
Castile whose expansion led to Carlos V, a neurotic but brilliant emperor, and to its son 
Felipe II. Among both they almost governed one century. That of the discovery and that of 
the conquest of America. Spain became a metropolis of shade of an empire where she/he 
didn't put on the sun. 
The Austrias represented the movement contrary to the economic development and Anglo-
Saxon intellectual. Spain avoided the experimental science, the philosophical and social 
critic, the self-criticism, the commercial and industrial developments. Their colonies 
maintained the structures of power of the metropolis and the wealth, passing the time of the 
mythical illusions, was founded on it commends it, origin of the latifundio, and the menial 
work or slave. Felipe II, locked in his monkish cell, made all the decisions of his enormous 
empire, solving to alone from the most insignificant problems until the most complex. 
Their resolutions could take years. Bent on files, the king fixed norms, regulations, laws, 
identifications, it watched over the occupations, and until the official gear. Spain was 
paralyzed. But as the life she/he has to flow, you creó to the shade of the Crown and of the 
cross, another Spain: a country of scamps and beggars, of celestinas and prostitutes, of 
venal officials and unscrupulous traffickers, of black market and administrative corruption, 
of idleness and abuses. The decadence gnawed the prevailing absolutism inside. With the 
other kings the bankruptcy was accentuated. When the Borbones inherits the throne, the 
destination of the Spanish empire is sealed. It will disappear. But the liberated colonies 
will be indelibly marked by that process and that decadence. And of anything it will serve 
them to look passionately toward the nascent power of North America neither toward the 
French Revolution. 
The structures didn't modify substantially to propitiate other entirely different ones. The 
way of organization of the institutions and of the elements it continued in oneself traumatic 
relationship, although they changed the symbols and the official language. In vain Bolivar 
she/he wanted to create a new State in which a new society was based. The ingredients 
were the same ones. It didn't achieve their purpose. Simón Rodríguez was definitive: «Or 
we invent or we wander»; «But it counts she/he has to understand each other to a Indian 
that to Ovidio»; «Here they will make Republics without Citizens». If Bolivar wanted to 
create a new State for a new society, Simón Rodríguez intended to already ignore of the 
men formed and to undertake a popular education, from the primary School, to give civic 
republican «...a the imaginary Republic that rotates in the books, and in the Congresses...» 
Both sheltered an impossible and utopian dream, the one of being the creators of a new man 
in a new society. For that which you/they granted that paper to the State and the education. 
But, the men were the same ones, inclusive them. Between the conquerors and Boves 
she/he had not run the time. Neither she/he ran among Boves and Martín Espinoza, that of 
the Federal War. At the end, Bolivar, exhausted, in the Message to the Admirable Congress 
of the Republic of Colombia January of 1830, 20 conclude in these terms: «Fellow citizens. 
I blush when saying it: the independence is well the only one that we have acquired to coast 
of all the other ones...» it is the recognition of the matricide. Between England and United 
States there was filial continuity. The sign of violence that gravitated from the beginning of 
the Conquest operated about the War of Independence. 
Fear fundamental of the Venezuelan literature and of their cultural thought they were, from 
the Independence, the clarification of the own destination, the taking of conscience of the 
own identity and the analysis of the contradictory terms of this. For sociological, 
archaeological, psychological, literary and political, artistic, juridical roads the Venezuelans 
are looked for themselves. A venezolanidad feeling should not be limited to the study of the 
5 centuries, but diving in the big estates native, African and Iberian of where the towns, the 
archetypes and the symbols that encourage us proceed and they explain in the traffic of 
existing and of being    


 

20 Sections

 

Geography  History  Archaelogy National Fiestas Feeding Traditions Culture
Music  Folklore Dances Handcraft Popular Paint Tipical food  Aborigens
Botany Toponimia Ceramica Gastonomia Artesania Society  Zoology 
Tobbaco Fishesry Coffee Cocoa Petroleum Period-Hist Poblamiento


Venezuela Photo Galleries - (4)  - more than 300- Photos

Photo Gallery - Animal    Photo Gallery - Nature    Photo Gallery - Nature Art    Photo Gallery - Traditions


Venezuela Video Gallery (8) by Regions

Amazon  -  Andes  -   Bolivar  -  Delta  -  Islands  -   Los Llanos   -  Venezuela



Venezuela´s Eco Regions (15)


  (more than 100)


400 Org. Nationwide


Eco-Tourism Related 

Wildlife Circuits % ToursExpeditions & Nature Trips (more than 65)  (We send a Frre Brochure with/Prices at your e-mail)

Please E-mail to Us     Please E-mail to Us

Please E-mail to Us


- for earthlings addicted to outdoor life

 


  


Adventure  (11)


Please E-mail to Us    President's Mobile House-(Trailer) On Assignment Work

 

Unified Messaging Center